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Научный журнал для школьников ISSN 2542-0186
О журнале Выпуски Правила Олимпиады Учительская Поиск Личный портфель


Макеева В.Е. 1
1 МБОУ Наро-Фоминская сош №6 СУИОП
Розумова Юлия Сергеевна (, МБОУ Наро-Фоминской сош №6)
1. Мюллер, В.К. Большой русско-английский словарь. – М: ООО « Дом Славянской книги» 2009. –608 с.
2. http://www.multitran.ru
3. Mair, Victor H.; Hoh, Erling (2009). The True History of Tea. Thames & Hudson. p. 169.
4. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea_in_the_United_Kingdom7.
5. "How to make a perfect cuppa: put milk in first". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 December, 2014
6. http://englishgid.ru/jiznvanglii/obraz-jizni/oclocktea.html
7. http://greenfieldtea.co.uk/
8. http://www.ahmadtea.com/
9. https://ahmadtea.ru/about


Today, there are about 262 countries in the world. And each of them is individual in its own way. Each nation has its own traditions and customs concerning various spheres of life - from harvest and wedding to national features of cuisine and the use of certain products. Tea is one of the most popular drinks in the world, also became a participant in various national traditions.

It is difficult to imagine life without tea, which gives cheer in the mornings, restores strength after a difficult working day and warms up a friendly conversation. Tea is an ancient and noble drink that also has healing properties. So in ancient Chinese myths, the tea leaf acted as an independent medicine.

Tea bush is an amazing plant containing many different substances that have a favorable effect on the human body. It is a very low shrub (only 1 meter) with dark green dense leaves, however, only thin and tender young leaves go to prepare tea.

It was worth the tea to appear in any country, as in a matter of years he conquered it completely and completely. And the tea party procedure itself was riddled with peculiar traditions and became the "calling card" of the people. Tea is a drink that does not tolerate fuss, and you can only get the benefit of it by completely surrendering to this process for at least half an hour. [3]

Problem. In the English school curriculum, we get a lot of material about the cultural traditions of modern England, but there is very little specific information about tea ceremonies, that details the history of English tea and the English tea party tradition in the Victorian era. In this project, I want to expand my knowledge in this area.

The purpose of the project is to investigate the history of tea in England and modern English tea traditions on the basis of journalistic and scientific literature.


1. To learn the history of English tea by various sources.

2. To learn the history of the English tea party.

3. To find information about Tea Party traditions in England these days. (Picture1)

Hypothesis. If there are centuries-old traditions of tea drinking in England, that is, the history of English tea.

Project actuality. Currently, knowledge of any foreign language is mandatory for every person who wants to be considered educated. However, "knowledge of the language is important not only as a way of communication, but also as a way of knowing different cultures."

Tea in England is more than tea. The traditions of his drinking are observed by both the queen and ordinary British. This is a special culture - from brewing to consumption; she has many adherents and far beyond the island. European tea party traditions came to us, first of all, from England.

There are 59 million people in the UK. There are 165 million cups of tea in the UK every day. 86% drink tea at home and only 14% drink it outside. The British have a tradition of family tea drinking. The British live to be 80-90 years old, so they are recognized as centenarians.

Picture 1.

The History of tea in Europe

If we take a closer look at how tea is called in different countries, we will notice an amazing pattern. Half of the world calls tea - "tea" or something very similar.

The tea drink has its own history of distribution. Its homeland is Asia. It took another three centuries before tea became (at the beginning of the 9th century) the national drink of the Chinese.

Europe also took a long time to spread tea, although much less long than in the homeland of tea - in Asia. For the first time, Portuguese sailors brought tea to Western Europe from China in 1517, but it did not go beyond the limits of small Portugal.

In 1610, the Dutch made a second attempt to introduce tea to Europe, but even then this drink never went beyond the narrow circle of Amsterdam patricians.

The history of tea in Russia began in 1638 with the gift of as many as four poods of dry tea leaves from the Mongols to the Russian ambassador Vasily Starkov, who served under Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich.

Continuing to explore the history of tea, one cannot fail to mention England, the only European country where its own unique tradition of English tea drinking has developed, with its own rules and regulations. For many, the phrase "English tea" is associated with quality, aristocracy, and high society. Almost everyone who is asked: "What associations do you have with England?" will answer, "five o'clock" or "English breakfast". [4]

The History of Tea in England

The first documentary evidence of tea was presented in a newspaper advertising article by Thomas Garvey, published in 1658. Here is an excerpt from the article: "This wonderful drink, approved by all doctors, which the Chinese call" chaa, "can be purchased at the central branch of the grocery store for currency."

The article indicates the main advantages of tea:

• Tea gives you power and energy.

• Helps with headaches, dizziness and feelings of gravity in the head.

• Relieves fatigue, apathy.

• Tea makes sleep calm, enlightens the mind and strengthens memory.

• Normalizes sleep, helps overcome drowsiness

• Helps well with colds and scurvy.

When properly administered, it promotes the removal of decay products from the blood through sweat and urine.

When Garvey started selling tea, the price was quite high: 450 g of dry tea cost sixteen shillings, which is equal to five continental dollars of that time.

By the end of the 1700s, tea became more popular, and its price fell to one and a half shillings in 450 g.

In 1702, Queen Anne made a statement that for breakfast she prefers to drink tea rather than ale. Anna deserves praise for recommending the use of silver teapots instead of Chinese ceramic teapots. From now on, the attitude towards tea in England has changed, which entailed an increase in the purchase of tea, as well as an unprecedented request for silver for the manufacture of tea utensils.

Black tea came to replace the green China tea. Black tea subjected to oxidation can be stored much longer than green tea, which was especially relevant at that time, since the process of transporting tea from China to England and Europe took from several weeks to several months.

At the very beginning of its history, "English" tea was sold only in pharmacies and coffee houses in the UK. And then, towards the end of the 17th century, having won the hearts of many gourmets, coffee and tea moved to private property. Tea was present at the most dangerous risky transactions, love intrigues, coffee houses turned into closed clubs for men. One of these clubs, Edward Lloyd's coffee house, was the beginning of the organization of the famous insurance company Lloyds of London.

And if it were not for Princess Katarina of Bragan, tea would be an exclusively male drink, since it was drank only in coffee shops, where women were forbidden to enter. She changed lopsided view of tea in England, as a medical and healing aid, legalized tea drinking in secular circles.

Since 1685, not a single aristocrat doubted that tea would be served at a literary evening.

Since 1938, tea consumption amounted to 96.11 pounds per person (more than 40 kg!!!), tea by this time was firmly established in England, as well as in the cultural traditions of the British. England has become the "European homeland of tea." [1]

English Tea Party these days

The British drink tea six times a day, and each time of day corresponds to their own tea variety and their own tea party traditions.

The British themselves joke that it is easier to imagine England without the Queen than without tea. But the fact that tea drinking has become a tradition in their lives, around which the whole working day and rest is organized, the merit of the Royal Court is great. [8]

English Tea Party Rules

What is the traditional English tea party? A typical British tea ritual takes place as follows. The table is covered with a tablecloth, usually white or bluish shades. Napkins according to the rules should be in the tone of the tablecloth. In addition, a small vase with fresh flowers should be on the table.

As for dishes, the tea table kit includes: a tea pair, a dessert plate, a teaspoon, a fork and a knife for each guest, a jug with boiling water, a milkman with milk or cream, a sieve with a stand, as well as a saccharica with raffinade and tongs. It is very important that all the dishes are from one service, usually porcelain.

In addition, one cannot but recall that we owe the British the usual cup with handle to us. So at the beginning of the 18th century, by order of the British, Chinese manufacturers attached a handle to the traditional eastern piale. Moreover, the British demanded to supplement the cups with saucers so that hot tea would not accidentally drop on their knees or stain the tablecloths.

The tea chosen by the guest is brewed in an individual teapot, previously rinsed with boiling water. According to the rules, 30-35 g of tea per liter of water is supposed. The brew should be infused for about 3-5 minutes so that the tea reveals all its taste and healing properties.

One of the trends of our time is the replacement of loose tea with tea bags. Today, the share of packaged tea in England is approximately 90%. However, it is worth noting that the British, famous for their conservatism, did not abandon infusion teapots at all. Tea manufacturers produce special large bags for infusion teapots (in no case be confused with our usual bags "for one cup." After the tea has brewed, it is poured into a cup and diluted with boiling water. Probably, many know that the traditional English tea is "white tea," that is, tea with milk or cream. Milk is an indispensable participant in the tea party in English. And here the main disputes among tea lovers begin, namely: what should be poured into a cup earlier - tea or milk?

It is traditionally believed that first milk should be poured into the cup and only then tea. Initially, this method was distributed among the working class. The fact is that under the influence of boiling water, a thin cup could easily crack, and the pleasure was very expensive. To avoid such a nuisance, milk was first poured into the cup, and only then tea was added.

Representatives of the opposite "camp" believe that at first it is necessary to pour tea and only then milk into the cup.

According to the tea etiquette, the cup and saucer should be taken from the table together: with the left hand - the saucer, and with the right - the cup. Drinking tea from a saucer, as well as in Russia, is considered a violation of etiquette.

Now let's go to the traditional treat, which is served for tea. Typical English snacks for tea are, firstly, traditional pastries (ginger cakes or raisins). Secondly, these are thin triangular sandwiches (finger sandwiches). They are made of white bread (crusts are necessarily trimmed), and on top they are mixed with various fillings: butter with cucumber, with cream cheese and smoked salmon, with crushed boiled egg, lettuce and mayonnaise, with shrimp and Marie Rose sauce.

Traditional scones are served too, which are usually eaten with Devonshire Clotted Cream and homemade jams. At the English tea ceremony, you can taste small tall crumpets, served hot with honey and butter. If you are lucky, you can taste the famous muffins (ginger and fruit), finger cakes (finger biscuits), baked baskets with fruits and other sweets. [2]

Types of English tea parties

According to centuries-old tradition, tea in the UK is supposed to drink 6 times.

Early morning cuppa, Lunch, Afternoon tea, Five-o-clock," evening " tea, right before going to bed, an Englishman will drink a cup of fruit tea. There are also Tea breaks or Low tea-small hourly breaks. [5]

English tea brands


This brand of tea appeared in the UK in 1706, when the founder of the company Thomas Twining opened his first store on Strand Street in London.

In 1784, Richard Twining achieved a reduction in tea duties, making this drink much more widely available.

In 1837, in the first year of Queen Victoria's reign, Twinings received the Royal Order of Her Majesty's Permanent Supplier of Tea.

Twinings owns its own modern plants and has branches in different countries of the world. [6]

Tetley - Tetley (English Tetley) tea brand, which has more than 60 types of tea and is sold in 40 countries. Tetley Group is a division of Tata Tea Limited, part of the Tata Group, and is the second manufacturer in the world.

Yorkshire tea is a black tea mix produced by The Bettys & Taylors Group. This is the second most popular tea brand in the UK, it was introduced in 1886 by Charles Edward Taylor. Founded as CE Taylor & Co., later shortened to Taylor, the company was bought by the rival Betty Tea, which today forms The Bettys & Taylors Group. Taylor is still based in Harrogate, Yorkshire. [7]

Ahmad Tea

Ahmad Tea Ltd was founded in 1986 in England. One of the permanent owners of the company throughout its history was the Afshar family (English Afshar). At the end of 2014, Ahmad Tea (UK) Ltd. was controlled by several enterprises located outside the UK: tea factories in Dubai (United Arab Emirates), Kharkov (Ukraine), Mytishchi (Russia), Nanchan (China), Sri Lanka and Iran. The main sources of raw materials are China, India and Sri Lanka. [9]

Riston Tea

The history of Riston tea dates back many years. And all this time there is a constant improvement in quality, due to the constant development of production. Over the years, a truly unique collection of Riston teas of the highest quality was created. [7]


There are centuries of tea party traditions and certain rules of tea etiquette followed by the British. Also, the English tea party is in the UK a state treasure and tradition, an achievement of culture dating back to the era of Victorian England.

Of course, today the classic English tea party in modern England is not held so often. Nevertheless, traditions remain traditions. So, London restaurants and expensive hotels continue to arrange tea evenings and, in order to get to them, you need to book in advance.

A cup of tea is a symbol. A symbol of the comfort, warmth and inviolability of traditions. Everything around changes - the person himself, the environment of communication, the stylization of forms and the environment itself, only tea drinking has always accompanied, and will still accompany human life.

Completing the story of the history of English tea and tea party in England, I would like to note that, despite the modern pace of life, in which less and less space remains to national traditions, you just can't do without a cup of excellent tea in raw cold England! (Picture 2)

Picture 2.

Библиографическая ссылка

URL: https://science-start.ru/ru/article/view?id=1983 (дата обращения: 20.04.2024).

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